Reasons Why People Decide on Having Plastic Surgery

In the past few years, plastic surgery has become very popular, with lots of women and men choosing to go through some procedures. It would be interesting to know more about some of the most popular types, and the reasons for choosing to have these done.

Plastic surgery is a widely used term, which encompasses several, different surgical procedures. These surgeries are not only done for aesthetics, but also for personal and medical reasons as well.

Botox, facelift, liposuction, breast enlargement and breast reduction are among the most common procedures performed on women.

Hair transplant, calf/buttock implants and nasal surgery are among the most common procedures performed on men.

These procedures are done because of many, different reasons, some of which are the following:


A lot of people have a low self-esteem because of their far from perfect body. If they will have a more shapely body, it will make them feel more confident and outgoing. Going through plastic surgery will let them feel comfortable with their body, and boost their self confidence. However, it is important to keep in mind that this procedure is not a sure way to boost self esteem/confidence. Therefore, anyone who is considering to go through such a procedure for the above mentioned reasons should talk about this with a healthcare specialist, including the possible causes of having low self esteem.


A number of individuals can suffer health risks and conditions because of some of their physical features. Plastic surgery can correct these to provide them with a healthier, happier lifestyle. Weight loss for obese patients and breast reduction for women with large breasts are a few examples. Large breasts can put needless strain on the shoulders and back.

Another reason to undergo cosmetic surgery is to enhance the physical appearance. Face lift and breast enlargement are the best examples for this. Such changes help alter features they are not too happy with and therefore, make them feel comfortable with themselves.


One of the major reasons for deciding on plastic surgery is reconstruction. This type of procedure aims to return some physical features to their former state. This is usually performed on patients that have been through an accident or another procedure like for instance, going through a breast reconstruction after breast mastectomy. Reconstructive surgery is not necessarily used for physical appearances. It can also be done on joints, among other areas to correct healthcare conditions.


Last but not the least, some people decide on going through plastic surgery to enhance their physical features. Weight loss is among the most common. Those who have lost too much weight tend to have excessive skin so they do not like to show their bodies in public. Plastic surgery is capable of removing this excess skin to give them a more toned body that makes them feel comfortable.

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Three Types Of Obesity Surgery

Now the number one cause of preventable death in the U.S., obesity is an unprecedented epidemic that threatens the health of the nation. Our growing rotundity not only shortens our life expectancy considerably, it is also responsible for the alarming rise in chronic conditions in recent years. New cases of weight-related diseases like type 2 diabetes have tripled in the past three decades. It is no wonder obesity surgery is more popular than ever.

Why Surgery?

Because dieting doesn’t work! About 90 percent of people regain some or all of the weight they lost while dieting in less than one year. We can argue all day and night about which diet might possibly be effective, but the fact is that only obesity surgery offers a permanent solution to the problem. With that in mind, here are three of the most popular types of weight loss surgery.

Adjustable Gastric Banding

In this procedure, the surgeon uses a band that squeezes the stomach into two much smaller sections: a small upper pouch and a larger lower one. Still connected by a tiny passage that slows the emptying of food, patients can no longer eat as much or as quickly as they once did. On average, most can only swallow half a cup of food before feeling full.

Advantages: Much simpler and safer than a gastric bypass, this procedure requires less cutting, which means a shorter recovery period. The bands can also be adjusted to further restrict or expand the size of the stomach.

Disadvantages: Because it a simpler, less aggressive operation, the results tend to be less dramatic than other weight loss procedures. Some patients have even regained some of the weight they lost over time.

Sleeve Gastrectomy

Another type of restrictive surgery, this operation involves the removal of most of the stomach — typically about 75 percent. The remainder is much smaller and narrower and cannot hold nearly as much food. As such, it is physically impossible for patients to eat as much as they once did.

Advantages: It works. Removing most of the stomach is a sure-fire way to reduce total caloric consumption.

Disadvantages: Unlike the previous procedure, a sleeve gastrectomy is completely and totally irreversible. It is also a relatively new surgical option, so doctors aren’t certain about the long-term benefits.

Gastric Bypass

The most common types of obesity surgery, the gastric bypass makes the stomach much smaller by dividing it into two separate parts: an upper and lower segment. The upper segment is then connected to the small intestine, bypassing the lower part of the stomach and leaving it unused.

Advantages: Not only does it reduce the amount of food you can consume, it also shortens the length of the digestive tract, which makes it harder for you to get calories from your meals. As a result, pounds tend to come off in short order. About half of the weight most patients lose is shed in the first six months.

Disadvantage: Because you body will no longer absorb nutrients as effectively as it once did, you could put yourself at risk of malnutrition. In particular, the risk of anemia (not enough iron) and osteoporosis (not enough calcium) may increase.

If you are considering obesity surgery, all of the aforementioned procedures have proven highly effective in helping patients fight and win the battle of the bulge.

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Three Red Flag Warnings Leading to Weight Gain After Bariatric Surgery

Before undergoing bariatric surgery for weight loss it is hard to imagine that we could possibly ever become one of “those people” who gain weight after losing it with the help of surgery. Sadly, at some point most patients who have gastric surgery as their last hope for weight loss eventually regain some weight back. It can happen quickly and without fanfare. Here are three red flags to watch for that may lead to weight regain:

  1. Snacking on Soft Carbs. Over the last 10 years countless bariatric patients have told me, “It seemed harmless at first to eat a few pretzels (crackers, chips, cookies, etc.) but pretty soon I was eating them all day and the weight started coming back.” This is a common mistake made by weight loss surgery patients that eventually leads to regaining some weight previously lost with weight loss surgery. We turn to soft carbohydrates because, in most cases, they are comfortable in the stomach pouch, they taste good, and they are readily available. Unfortunately, soft carbohydrates defeat the function of the stomach pouch. When we eat a meal of lean protein and vegetable carbohydrates the food stays in our stomach pouch and we feel a sense of fullness or tightness that signals us to stop eating. Soft carbohydrates on the other hand pass quickly through the pouch and the sensation of fullness is not achieved, therefore we can eat soft carbohydrates seemingly all day. The first rule of weight loss surgery is “Protein First” and rule number three is “No Snacking.” Remembering these rules will help us refrain from snacking on soft processed carbs, a habit that may lead to weight gain for bariatric patients.
  2. Drinking Liquid with Meals. Generally speaking bariatric patients are instructed to cease consumption of liquids 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after eating. In addition they are told to refrain from drinking beverages with meals. The liquid restrictions are intended to keep mealtime focus on a high protein diet of lean animal, dairy and vegetable protein. The high protein food fills the gastric pouch and sustains satiation best when liquid is absent. When we consume beverages with our lean protein meal the food is washed through the gastric pouch before fully digested. Nutrients are lost as food is washed away and hunger returns more quickly. As we advance following weight loss surgery we tend to relax the liquid restrictions because it is not comfortable to eat food without liquid and dinner conversation is difficult with a dry mouth. An occasional small sip of water with meals may be acceptable and is unlikely to cause weight gain. However the return to full drinking with meals almost always leads to a weight loss plateau or eventually weight gain.
  3. Avoiding the Scale. During the early weeks and months following weight loss surgery patients find themselves weighing frequently because it is exciting to measure our weight loss on the bathroom scale. In fact, for some patients in the phase of weight loss the relationship with the scale becomes a near-obsession. Sadly as life-long dieters bariatric patients intuitively know when the pendulum has swung from losing weight to gaining weight. Avoiding the bathroom scale is a loud red flag warning that weight gain is imminent. This is understandable, we have worked hard for weight loss and avoiding the scale allows us to deny or ignore what we already know: we are gaining weight. Patients who establish a weekly ritual of weighing on the same day of each week at the same time and place tend to be more accountable for weight gain and more likely to correct behaviors leading to weight gain at an early stage. Patients who find them self avoiding the scale are encouraged to engage in self-assessment to identify the cause of weight gain and correct behaviors quickly.

Before weight loss surgery we are told that gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding (lap-band), or gastric sleeve procedures are only a tool for weight loss. We are instructed to adopt a lifestyle that includes dietary and physical activity modifications. This new lifestyle is to be followed for the rest of our life in order to maintain weight loss and achieve improved health. As much as the surgery is a tool, so are we human prone to the ups and downs we call life. Red flags are also tools -warning tools- that when observed give us opportunity to make a correction and move forward in a favorable direction.

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Is it Normal to Have a Fever After Hernia Surgery?

If you have undergone hernia surgery within the past few days or weeks, you are no doubt hoping for a quick and successful recovery. That is why it can be worrisome if you find that you have a fever shortly after having had hernia surgery.

Since we were children, we have often been taught that a fever can quickly go from being something to not worry about to a “call the doctor”-type of emergency. Indeed, it is important to keep tabs on a fever, especially after surgery.

Anatomy of a Hernia

A hernia is a protrusion of the gut (or intestine) from inside the body through the abdominal wall. The abdominal wall is made almost entirely of muscle. For some people, the abdominal wall can develop a weakness in one or more locations over time. If the weakness becomes pronounced enough, it can allow the intestine to bulge through the wall, becoming a hernia.

A hernia is usually visible to the naked eye as a bulge on the outside of the body. In fact, it is this visible quality of hernias that make them easy to diagnose.

How Hernia Surgery Works

Hernia surgery involves the patching of the weakness in the abdominal wall. The surgery starts with the doctor opening a small incision in the skin. The doctor then pushes the protruding parts (the gut) back into the body cavity. Finally, a mesh patch is applied over the opening to strengthen it and to prevent any recurrence of the hernia.

Chances for Infection

The quality and cleanliness of most medical facilities in developed countries today means that your hernia surgery was probably carried out in a sterile environment by a competent doctor. However, anytime you undergo surgery, you are exposing yourself to the potential for infection. Any open wound is necessarily exposed to bacteria and viruses which exist outside the body in the environment.

If you have had hernia surgery and are wondering, “Is it normal to have a fever after hernia surgery?”, it is important that you know what to look for and when you should be concerned.

When a Fever is Normal?

After hernia surgery, you will likely not be released from the hospital if you have a fever. But, it is not uncommon for a light fever to develop in the days or even a week or so after hernia surgery. As long as your fever comes on and then goes away within a couple of days without getting too high, you are fine.

When to Call Your Doctor

However, if your fever reaches over 101 degrees for more than a few hours, you should call your doctor. In that case, it is quite possible that you have an infection.

Other reasons to visit your doctor after hernia surgery include: unexplained leg pain (due to the possibility of blood clots), pus and drainage from your incision, very dark bowel movements (which may indicate blood in the stool), difficulty breathing and inability to eat.

What to Expect if You Have to Visit Your Doctor

If you do decide to visit the doctor due to a fever of 101 or higher, it is important not to let this worry you. Your doctor will likely inspect your wound to make sure it looks like it is healing properly. He or she will probably subscribe some antibiotics to treat a possible infection. However, if your fever is extremely high, you may be asked to check back into the hospital for a day or so in order for you to be properly observed until it goes away.

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Blurred Vision After Eyelid Surgery

Upper (eyelid) blepharoplasty is among the most popular eyelid procedures performed by facial cosmetic surgeons. Blurred vision is certainly recognized as a possible complication associated with the procedure. Its cause has often been caused by dry eye.

Recent literature indicates that the procedures that reposition the upper eyelid may alter the pressure exerted in the opposing cornea and alter preexisting corneal curvature. Such changes potentially alter the corneal refraction and might result in persistent blurred vision after upper blepharoplasty, gold weight implantation and ptosis repair.

By means of corneal topography, some investigators discovered that most patients who underwent blepharoplasty as well as ptosis repair had quantifiable refractive changes. Nevertheless, our clinical experience indicates that a small number of patients have need of new prescriptions for lenses after blepharoplasty.

Going through any sort of surgery can be a traumatic and an uncomfortable experience; however, aided by the advent of modern anesthesia, surgery is oftentimes performed without an individual feeling or remembering anything. Anesthesia consists of several components, including sedation, immobility, unconsciousness, analgesia (lack of pain), and amnesia (not enough memory). Every day, approximately 60,000 individuals in America undertake surgery under anesthesia.

Regardless of the benefits of a numbed surgical experience, anesthesia can result in some unintended unwanted effects. One such residual effect could be blurred vision – a side effect not caused directly because of the drug, but often by an abrasion associated with the cornea, the outermost eye layer.

A corneal abrasion in such situation is brought on by direct injury to the cornea from such things as face masks, surgical drapes, or any other foreign objects. It can also be associated with decreased tear production within the eyes, or swelling regarding the eye in patients lying on their stomach during surgery. This might be one of the rationale that the eyes are taped shut when procedures are performed under anesthesia.

In a research of 671 patients undergoing non-eye surgeries, about one out of 25 patients reported an innovative new start of blurred vision lasting at the very least three days after surgery. In such a circumstance, you are able to have pain or irritation that is like a foreign body in the eye. Signs and symptoms are usually transient, and treatment solutions are usually lubricant drops and an antibiotic ointment to stop bacterial infection.

Interestingly, this kind of injury may also be self-inflicted. As someone is released of anesthesia is not completely awake, they will often make an effort to rub their eyes or nose with all the little oxygen probes still attached to their fingers and accidentally scratch their eyes.

For most people in the study, the observable symptoms resolved within 8 weeks without having any complication, but about 1 percent required visits to eye care professionals. Needless to say, with any eye intrusion or injury, it is recommended to visit your eye doctor for a resolution.

Even though it is an unusual problem, mention any concerns you may need to your anesthesiologist ahead of the procedure.

Listed Here Are Several Factors Behind the Vision Change After Blepharoplasty:

1. Dry Eyes: this will be second to eyelid closure problems or incomplete blinking. This gets better over time most often. There are patients who use drops during the day (up to every hour occasionally) and gel at night. In the event that your eyes are dry, boost the lubrication. You can’t overdose it

2. Refractive Changes: Sometimes after blepharoplasty or ptosis surgery, astigmatism may be induced into the cornea given that the eyelid position is slightly changing on the surface of the cornea. This is usually temporary, but might be permanent and you may certainly need to replace your glasses prescription.

3. Post operative Bleeding And Hemorrhage: a Hemorrhage at the back of the eye can put pressure on and damage the optic nerve. It is almost always sudden, associated with pain, the eye bulging and immediately in the postoperative period.

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Hip Replacement Surgery – Risks And Recovery

Hip Replacement Surgery is a surgical procedure, which is performed on the hip joints to substitute painful joints with the artificial joints. The procedure is compulsory for the patients, who are not getting any relief from the oral medication and are in need of the surgery to get rid of the pain. It can be performed either hemi-replacement or total replacement form that totally depends on the condition of the patient. The treatment is much complicated and requires proper medication and strict bed rest to give your joints the relief they want.

A number of risks including blood clotting, infections, fracture, change in leg length, etc. are associated with it, but they get cured with the time. To get relief from the surgery or to recover faster, you need to take some precautions even after getting discharged from the hospital and they are:

Say No To Stair Climbing: One of the main things that help you in the fast recovery of the hip replacement surgery is not climbing the stairs till you recover properly. Make sure where you stay at your home has all the arrangements on the same floor, so, you don’t need to do up and down over and over again. It’ll help you recover faster than before.

Cut The Clutter Out Of Your Room To Avoid Falls: Another precaution that patients must take after the hip replacement surgery is not falling over and over again, as it may put the unnecessary constraint on your muscles and affect the stitches as well. Thus, you should try to keep your room as clean as possible.

Use An Elevated Washroom: Until you get recover properly, you should not perform any exercise that includes bending, as it put pressure on the joints and damage them drastically. Even while going the washroom, try to use the elevated washroom, so, you don’t need to bend too far.

These are a few quick recovery tips that the patient should follow even after getting the discharge. Apart from the above tips, try to sit on a firm chair that keeps your back straight. It’ll help you avoid bending and take care of your joints. The use of recliner is a big no for the patients who just went for the hip replacement surgery until they get recover properly and get permission from the doctor. If you have any doubt regarding the risks associated with the conditions or want more recovery tips, you can freely ask them all to your surgeons.

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Why Would You Pay $10,000 for Penis Reduction Surgery?

Being in the business of the penis enlargement industry, I have heard case after case of horrible situations involving penis augmentation surgery, or commonly known as penis enlargement surgery. All of these cases involve irreversible effects, leaving a man either without a penis at all, a penis that is non-functional, or in best cases a scarred, deformed penis that has lost only some of its functionality.

First I would like to address the misconception behind surgical penis enlargement. Being men, we tend to care for our penis quite a bit. We make sure it is clean, if we see some kind of new spot; we immediately become concerned, wondering if everything’s okay, in general we place great importance on it. So it is not very hard for someone to realize that being involved in a penis industry will have success. Today we see hundreds of different products, techniques, surgery, pumps, weights, and even hypnosis. Everything and anything that people can scam you out of your money.

Now being that we are society that trusts doctors with our deepest secrets, secrets that even our spouse may not know about, we look for doctors when we are faced with a problem that involves our physical body, even the most intimate parts of our body. We trust doctors beyond immeasurable scopes. We will spend from $3,000 to $10,000 so our wives can get bigger breasts. The doctor fills the breasts full of silicone and bam, problem solved. Now this is where our biggest misconception comes from, if women can have it done, why can’t men have it done? Why would we not be able to successfully increase the size of our penis with surgery? Doctors are magicians right? Wrong. We fail to remember a few things. Breasts do not necessarily have to serve any function, it is like plastic surgery, and it is done for looks only. The penis is an organ that is required to function on a daily basis however, quite often several times per day. If it was just about looks then it would not be such a big issue. However there are an extremely large number of cases with men whose penis increases in size by several inches, but the problem is that he can’t get it up. What is the purpose of that? Just to throw out a few more stats at you, on the average penis enlargement surgery costs around $5,000. More than 50% of these surgeries require additional “reconstructive” surgery generally costing for a total of over $10,000. Why would spend that kind of money? Some people save years for these kinds of operations, only to come out damaged for life.

If you would like to read about a few real life stories:

San Francisco State University:


Discovery Channel:


Now what about alternatives? First I’d like to make sure that you even need an alternative. What is the reason for why you want a larger penis? Is it so you perform better in bed? Is it to be able to satisfy your sexual partner more? Is it so you don’t feel ashamed at the gym, or any other place where others can see your penis? If you said yes to any of these questions then you do not need penis enlargement. What you need is some confidence, maybe some more skills in bed, or in a worst scenario you just need something to help with the premature ejaculation. There are only a few reasons where I can see a larger penis a must; one includes trying to become a porn star.

Whatever your reason is however, there are natural, safe, and healthy ways of penis enlargement. Some of our recommended forms of penis enlargement are penis exercises such as jelqing and penis enlargement pills such as VigRX, Magna-RX+ and VP-RX, among others. There are many penis enlargement products, so please be sure to do your research before making your decision.

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Treatment of Obesity: Weight Loss and Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric surgery includes a kind of procedure performed on people who have obesity. Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the stomach with a gastric band or through taking away a portion of the stomach (sleeve gastrectomy or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch) or by resecting and re-routing the small intestine to a small stomach pouches (gastric bypass surgery).

The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by non-surgical means. It even helps in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the co-morbidities, quality of life and all-cause mortality.

Specific criteria established by the NIH consensus panel indicated that bariatric surgery is appropriate for all patients with BMI (kg/m2) >40 and for patients with BMI 35-40 with associated comorbid conditions. These standards have held up over the long years, although specific indications for bariatric/metabolic surgical intervention have been recognized for persons with less severe obesity, such as persons with BMI 30-35 with type 2 diabetes. The indications for bariatric surgery are evolving rapidly to consider the presence or absence of comorbid conditions as well as the severity of the obesity, as reflected by BMI.

Specific Bariatric Surgical Procedures are Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), Sleeve Gastrectomy, Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, Implantation of Devices (includes Adjustable Gastric Banding, Intermittent vagal blockade, Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Devices).

Bariatric surgical community enacted a number of changes to result in this improved safety record. Included is the identification of the importance of surgeon and center experience, the establishment of pathways, care protocols, and quality initiatives and incorporation of all of these aspects of care into an accreditation of centers program. The transition to laparoscopic methodology occurred during the same time period and also contributed to the improved safety.

Weight loss following bariatric surgery has been studied and reported both short- and longer-term following all surgical procedures undertaken, as weight loss is the primary objective of bariatric surgery. Mean weight loss is uniformly reported. It is crucial to identify however, the high variability of weight loss following apparently standardized operative procedures such as RYGB or Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB).

The ultimate benefit of weight reduction, whether medical or surgical, relates to the reduction of the co-morbidities, quality of life and all-cause mortality. Despite the importance of assessing these risks and taking steps to implement effective medical management with variable success, surgery has proven to be more effective.

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Bloated Stomach After Heart Surgery – Healing Tips

Heart surgery is one of the more serious and involved types of surgery that you can undergo. While there is a variety of heart surgery procedures, all of them should be taken seriously – and all of them require some significant recovery and healing time.

Of course, there can be major complications after heart surgery, including stroke, heart attack, serious bleeding, skin graft failure, and loss of life. Fortunately, these complications are quite rare.

There also are a number of possible minor complications that you can experience after heart surgery, including: nausea, vomiting, minor infections, slight bleeding, scar formation, allergic skin reactions, numbness… and a bloated stomach. Bloated stomach problems could be caused by fluid build-up, excessive gas, constipation, or other conditions.

If you are experiencing any of the above-mentioned major or minor complications after heart surgery, it is important that you consult with your doctor to ask him or her for treatment options.

Among the minor complications that you can experience after heart surgery, one of the most uncomfortable is having a bloated stomach. This condition can be accompanied by a distended stomach (that protrudes outward more than normal), accompanied with a general feeling of discomfort in the stomach area.

The following techniques can be tried to reduce the effects of a bloated stomach after heart surgery:

1. One of the causes of your problems could be constipation. If this is the cause of your bloating, try eating more high-fiber cereals, fruit and vegetables. And, be sure to drink 6-8 glasses of water each day.

2. Bloating is often caused by poor digestion. To improve your digestion, try eating more slowly. Chew your food thoroughly, and eat several small snacks or meals throughout the day.

3. Chewing gum can, believe it or not, contribute to improved bowel activity.

4. Try drinking warm tea a few times per day.

5. Consider using hot packs to relieve symptoms of gas and bloating.

6. Over-the-counter medicines like Maalox and Gas-X can help keep bloating to a minimum, while keeping your bowels moving.

7. If motility (movement of food through your digestion system) continues to be a concern, your doctor may decide to conduct a medication review to determine whether your medications may be playing a part in your bloating problems.

8. If the problems persist, a full gastro-intestinal (GI) evaluation may help your doctor to better evaluate this symptom.

9. In serious cases, your doctor may admit you to the hospital to have tubes inserted into your nose, stomach or rectum to relieve the pressure of excess gasses or fluids in the body.

10. Try taking an acidophilus supplement (found in many yogurts and some types of mil), as this will help restore the balance of the friendly bacteria in the bowel.

11. Finally, if your bloating is indeed caused by digestion problems, avoid the following foods: meats, dairy products, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, beans and legumes, cauliflower, onions, prunes, dark beer, red wine, carbonated drinks, sugar, and fried or fatty foods

Stomach discomfort and bloating after heart surgery could be caused by fluid build-up, gas or both. Check with your doctor for suggested remedies. And, try these suggested methods for reducing the symptoms and causes of bloated stomach after heart surgery.

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Arthroscopic ACL Surgery

Arthroscopic ACL surgical treatment is done to repair a partially or completely torn anterior cruciate ligament(ACL). ACL wounds account for about 40% of all sporting injuries and can lead to long-term pain and instability. There are two types of ACL knee surgery commonly performed depending on the severity of the damage, ACL repair surgery or an ACL reconstruction.

In most cases, ACL knee surgery is performed arthroscopically these days. Through Small holes, a special camera and Surgical tools are inserted into the knee in this Arthroscopic surgical process.

It is usually referred to as “keyhole surgery”. The big advantage is that the surgeon can assess the joint and repair any injuries without fully opening the joint. This speeds up recovery due to less trauma to the knee.

What Is An ACL Injury?

Arthroscopic ACL surgery is recommended when there is significant damage to the ACL. The ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) is one of a pair of ligaments in the mid of the knee joint, responsible to provide stability. It is a very strong ligament but if it gets overstressed, the fibres start to tear. With enough force, it can rupture completely.

ACL injuries are generally caused by:

1) Sudden, awkward movements of the knee e.g. winding the knee or overextending it

2) Direct blow: to the outside of the knee when the foot is fixed to the ground e.g. in sportsmen wearing studs

3 grades of ACL injury:

Grade 1: The ligament is overstretched and less than 10% of the fibres are torn. Should heal naturally in a few weeks.

Grade 2: Ligaments are intact when most of the fibres are torn. May heal with a rehab programme or may require arthroscopic ACL surgery.

Grade 3: The ligament is completely ruptured i.e. torn in two. Usually requires arthroscopic knee surgery.

Types of Arthroscopic ACL Surgery

Arthroscopic ACL surgery is performed to resume the stability of the knees.

2 types of Operation to treat ACL injuries and both are done arthroscopically.

1) ACL Repair Surgery:

Arthroscopic ACL repair surgery is performed when the muscle is broken off from the bone (called as an avulsion). The ligament is reattached to the bone and held in place. Repair is sometimes done if the ligament is partially torn. The surgeon sews the ligament back together in order to heal. However, there is a high failure rate so in most cases, it is better to go for a reconstruction than repair.

2) ACL Reconstruction:

If there is more significant damage or ongoing problems with pain and instability, the torn muscle is removed and replaced with an implant, generally taken from your hamstring or patellar tendon.

A reconstruction is much more common than a repair.

Preparing for Surgery

Performing Operation too quickly is coupled with an increased failure rate due to re-rupture of the new transplant. Your Physician will probably want you to wait until:

1) The swelling is reduced

2) You regain full range of movement at the knee

3) You build up the strength of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles

They may refer you to physio before your operation to urge you started a rehab programme. This will also have a positive impact on the recovery process.

What Happens During Surgery?

With both forms of arthroscopic ACL surgery, 2 or 3 small slits are made at the side of the knee. A special camera (known as an arthroscope) is inserted through one hole so that the surgeon can see the level of the damage. Special tools (such as scissors or lasers) are then inserted through the other hole and used to repair or replace any damaged tissue.

What Happens After Surgery?

Arthroscopic ACL surgery is not a fast fix. Both procedures require a few months of rehab to make up the strength and stability of the knee.

Do I Need Surgery?

Many people recover from ACL injuries without any need for arthroscopic ACL surgery, even some people with the completely ruptured ligament. It essentially comes down to 2 things, how severely the stability of the knee has been affected and what activities the affected individual does to become normal.

Arthroscopic ACL surgery is therefore indicated in individuals who:

a) want to return to pivoting sports e.g. football, skiing, tennis, rugby, boxing or hockey

b) suffer problems of instability with their knee giving way during their everyday activities

Alternatives to Surgery

Not everybody whose ligament ruptures goes for an arthroscopic ACL surgery. Exercise rehabilitation for fully or a partially torn ACL appears to make up the strength of the knee ligaments so that they can supply enough stability and support for the knee to compensate for the torn ACL. It additionally helps train the muscles and other ligaments to supply proprioceptive feedback to gain more stability. It normally takes a few months of rehab to completely recover from a torn ACL.

Wearing an ACL knee brace might facilitate support and protection to stop the knee from giving way.

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